the Iceman is well naturally preserved mummy
of a man. The man who was been captured in Ice was believed to be over 53 centuries old (3300 BC
How the mummy was found:
The mummy was found by Helmut and Erika Simon a German couple who were hiking the Oetzal Alps on 19th Sep'91. At first the couple thought that it was some mountain climber's mummified remains, but they finally decided to take a photo and report the incident to a nearby lodge caretaker, Markus Pirpamer. He in turn informed the respective authorities.
Discovery of true age:
The body was harshly removed from the ice by some ignorant local authorities, which caused some damages to the mummy. It was taken to a morgue in Innsbruck.Since then it has been in display in South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, Italy.
Tattoos, Clothes, Equipments:
Otzi was considered to have 57 carbon tattoos in his lower spine,behind his knee and right ankle. All the tattoos were of simple dots and lines. The tattoos were located near acupuncture points.Some scientists believe that these are ancient type of acupuncture and were used to treat otzi for some of the diseases he was suffering from. His clothes were highly sophisticated. He was wearing
- A Poncho
- A bear fur cap tied with two leather straps
- Cloak made of woven grass
- Pair of leggings
- Copper axe with yew handle
- Flint knife with ash handle
Cause of death:
At first it was believed that Otzi would have died due to a heavy winter storm. But X-rays, CT scan revealed that an arrowhead has wedged in one of his shoulder when he died. It was alleged that Otzi must have been a victim of a ritual sacrifice.
The theory was inspired by other discoveries such as Tollund Man and Lindow Man.He would have suffered unusual blood loss with no treatment available. He also had several cuts in hands, wrist and chest.
Influenced by the "Curse of Pharaohs" it was believed that Otzi mummy was cursed. The claim is that the deaths of some main people connected to the discovery and examination of Otzi have died under mystifying conditions. This includes the
Rainer Henn - was on the way to present new findings of the remains. "Head collision car accident."
Kurt Fritz - guided Dr.Henn to the location of Oetzi,Died in a avalanche shortly after that.
Rainer Hölz - created an hour long documentary of Otzi. Died of a brain tumor few months later.
Helmut Simon - discoverer, went for a walk disappeared and was found dead 8 days later.
Tom Loy - ground breaking DNA analysis on the corpse, died of blood clot.
Dr. Loy found four DNA samples from Otzi's blood. The theory talks a little prequel to his death, a sequence of events that could have happened before Otzi's struggling death. DNA samples done on Otzi man revealed blood traces of four other people,
- One from his knife
- Two from the same arrowhead
- And a fourth from his coat
The events are understood as Otziwas able to kill two of his rivals with the same arrowhead pulling it successfully out each time. The blood on his coat, should have been his wounded pal whom he had been carrying in this fuss.
Latest studies reveal the cause of his death was not just by blood loss due to the arrow head, but he had received a hard blow from the back of his head. The blow could have been due to a fall or someone hit him hard from behind.
Books Related to Otzi Ice Man Mummy
Ice Mummies: Frozen in Time Written by Eric Kudalis.
It describes about ice mummies,their Formation.It also explains some of the most famous ice mummies, where they were found, how scientists study them, and what they can teach us about the past.
Rich Resources on Otzi Ice Man
The latest issue of Science (10/31/03) includes an article entitled "Iceman's Origins and Wanderings." The article presents the results when the minerals found in Ötzi's teeth, bones, and intestines were compared to those found in soil and water samples taken from a wide area of the Tyrolean Alps.
The discovery of the ancient body also gave us great insight to our past. My key areas of research will concentrate mainly on the aspects that prove this iceman to be a trader: What makes us believe he was a trader? What are the other theories that try to describe who this man was?.
Important archaeological Discoveries
Amesbury Archer (or King of Stonehenge) is an early Bronze Age man, dating to around 2300 BC. His grave is of particular importance because of the rich valuables and the earliest gold objects ever found in England.
Otzi the Ice mummy
Otzi the Iceman is well naturally preserved mummy of a man. The man who was been captured in Ice was believed to be over 53 centuries old (3300 BC).
Java man is an interesting discovery to note that the find was not a complete specimen, but consisted merely of a skullcap, a femur, and three teeth. Many scientists of the day even suggested that Dubois' Java Man might have been the so-called "missing link
Kennewick Man is the name for the remains of a prehistoric man found on a bank of the Columbia River near Kennewick, Washington, on July 28, 1996. The Kennewick Man news story is one of the most significant archaeology stories of contemporary times.
Neandertal1 or Neanderthal was a species of genus Homo (Homo neanderthalensis) that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia during the last ice age.
Peking Man (sometimes now called Beijing Man), also called Sinanthropus pekinensis (currently Homo erectus pekinensis), is an example of Homo erectus.
Red lady of Paviland
The Red Lady of Paviland is a fairly complete Upper Paleolithic-era human male skeleton dyed in red ochre, discovered in 1823 by Rev. William Buckland in one of the Paviland limestone caves of the Gower Peninsula in south Wales, dating from c29,000.
The Tollund man lived during the late 5th century BC and/or early 4th century BC, about 2,400 years . He was buried in a peat bog on the Jutland Peninsula in Denmark, a find known as a bog body.
Turkana Boy, the designation given to fossil KNM-WT (Kenya National Museum-West Turkana), is a nearly complete skeleton of a 12-year-old hominid boy who died 1.6 million years ago.Turkana Boy is classified as either Homo erectus or Homo ergaster.
Dead Sea scrolls
The Dead Sea Scrolls are a collection of about 850 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, which were discovered in eleven caves near Qumran, in a fortress northwest of the Dead Sea in Israel.
The Narmer Palette, or Great Hierakonpolis Palette, is a significant Egyptian archeological find, dating from about 3200 BC, containing some of the earliest hieroglyphic inscriptions ever found, and depicting the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Narmer.
Rosetta Stone is a dark granite stone (often incorrectly identified as "basalt") which provided modern researchers with translations of ancient text in Egyptian demotic script, Greek, and Egyptian hieroglyphics.
Linear B is the script that was used for writing Mycenaean, an early form of the Greek language. It occurrs primarily on tablets dated from the 14th and 13th centuries BC.
The Sweet Track is an ancient roadway in the Somerset Levels, England. As of the early 2000s, it is the oldest known engineered roadway in the world. An grand footpath that ran for almost 2km across the Somerset levels swamps.
Tautavel Man is an ancestor of Neanderthal man, was slightly different from his contemporaries living Asia and Africa. In the village of Tautavel is located in the South of France, one of the most ancient humans was found: the Tautavel Man.
The Galilee Boat
which is also referred as the "Jesus Boat" was found by local Galilean inhabitants
in January 1986. The boat was wrapped in a polyurethane shell and then immersed in a special tank of water to avoid quick disintegration.
The monumental Ekron inscription
is dated, statistically and historically, to the first half of the seventh century B.C.E. The five lines of the inscription are together with this in a slit open border.
It wasn't long back when a lot of scholars were quizzical the real survival of a Roman Governor with the name Pontius Pilate, the procurator who ordered
Jesus' crucifixion. In June 1961 close to Caesarea-on-the-Sea (Maritima) was unearthed this appealing limestone block.
Ossuary of Caiaphas
In 1990 ornately decorate limestone ossuary (bone depository) was found in Jerusalem's Peace Forest. In the ossuary were the bones of two babies, a adolescent child, a teenage boy, an adult woman, and a man about 60years of age.
Israel, papyrus was the main form of writing substance. Once an authorized deed was written, it would be rolled up, one end crinkled in one-third of the width and the contrary end likewise folded in.
Ugarit-Pre historic city
It is the Capital city of a prehistoric principality in what these days is on the northern part of the Syrian coast, just north of the city of Latakia.